Monday, February 2, 2015

Beetles, Borers, and Moths, Oh My!

At a recent education event, Ohio State Entomologist Joe Boggs, spoke about the many insect threats to trees in Southwest Ohio. By now, we have all realized just how much damage the Emerald Ash Borer can cause, killing millions of trees in the US. However, two lesser known threats, the Asian Longhorned Beetle and the Gypsy Moth, are an imminent threat as well. Below, you will find information about these three pests and links to where you can find more information.

Emerald Ash Borer

The Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) first reached the US in 2002 along the northern shores of Michigan. By the summer of 2003, the EAB was confirmed to be in Ohio. By the end of 2014, EAB was confirmed in 24 states (see map below). The EAB affects all species of ash trees. The adult female lays eggs on the ash tree in the spring which hatch about 2 weeks later. After hatching, the larvae chew through the bark to the phloem and cambium layer of the tree where they feed and develop. In the fall, the fully mature larvae overwinter as pupae in the sapwood of the tree. The following spring, they emerge as an adult, leaving a "D" shaped hole as they leave to begin the life cycle over again. Females can lay up to 200 eggs each spring before dying. Once a tree becomes infected by the EAB, there is little that can be done to save it. Ash trees that die from EAB damage become very brittle and dangerous. Preventative insecticide applications, although costly, have proven to be effective in preventing against EAB. For more information please visit: www.emeraldashborer.info

Tree damage from EAB larvae

Adult Emerald Ash Borer

Map of confirmed EAB infestations

Asian Longhorned Beetle

The Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) was first discovered in the US in 1996 in Brooklyn, New York and is currently active in three states: Ohio, New York, and Massachusetts. The ALB has not spread as quickly as the EAB, and has stayed relatively localized. In Ohio, the ALB has caused major devastation in Clermont County near Cincinnati. Unlike the EAB, the ALB has more than one host tree. The ALB affects Ash, Birch, Elm, Goldenraintree, Hackberry, Horsechestnut, Katsura, London Planetree, Maple, Mimosa, Mountainash, Poplar, and Willow. During the summer, a female ALB will chew up to 90 individual depressions in the trunk of a host tree and lay each egg individually. In 10-15 days, the larvae hatches and begins tunneling into the tree's phloem and cambium layers beneath the bark. As the larvae matures, they tunnel deeper into the tree's heartwood where they mature into pupae. This process can take anywhere between 10 and 22 months. When the adults emerge, sometime between May and October, they leave a circular hole roughly the size of a dime. ALB infestation causes great damage to the structure of the tree. The large tunnel system can leave the trees very brittle. However, unlike the defoliation caused by the EAB, the ALB infested trees do not cause for much defoliation. Currently, the ALB is being monitored very closely in the affected areas and is under a strict quarantine. All suspected sightings of ALB should be reported immediately to your local department of agriculture. For more information or to report ALB sightings, please visit: www.asianlonghornedbeetle.com


Adult Asian Longhorned Beetle
ALB damage

Gypsy Moth

The Gypsy Moth was first introduced in the US in 1869 in Medford, Massachusetts. The first outbreak of widespread damage was reported in 1889 and in 1890 an eradication program was established. The spread of the Gypsy Moth is very slow. To date, the Gypsy Moth has spread throughout the Northeast and into Ohio, West Virginia, Virginia Michigan, and Wisconsin. Host trees include many deciduous hardwood trees including maple, elm, poplar, and oak, while also feeding on evergreens like pine and spruce. The flightless female Gypsy Moth lays egg masses on tree trunks and branches. The larvae in the eggs, covered in a coating of hairs, take roughly a month to fully develop. The larvae overwinter in the eggs for 8-9 months and emerge in the spring. The larvae disperse by hanging from silk threads waiting for the wind to send them aloft. The larvae feed on the leaves or needles of the host tree. Depending on the degree of infestation, tree damage can range from light to complete defoliation. Deciduous trees can often withstand a season of moderate to severe defoliation, but continual attacks can kill the tree. In June and July, the larvae reach maturity and enter the pupal stage, lasting between 7-14 days. The adult moth emerges, living up to a week, as the female lays its eggs. The adult moth does not have an active digestive system and cannot feed. Between 1970 and 2010 the Gypsy Moth defoliated over 80 million acres of forest in the US, costing millions of dollars in damage. Currently, 51 of Ohio's 88 counties have established Gypsy Moth populations. The southwest portion of Ohio is uninfested with Montgomery County in the eradication zone. Greene County, however, is in the transition zone where an effort is being made to slow the spread. For more information about the Gypsy Moth please visit: http://www.agri.ohio.gov/divs/plant/gypsy/gypsy-index.aspx

Gypsy Moth larvae

Male Gypsy Moth

Female Gypsy Moth


Friday, January 2, 2015

2014 Weather in Review

2014 was a wild year for weather in the Miami Valley. Coming off of a very frigid winter with over 48" of snowfall recorded at the course, it appeared as if spring was never going to arrive. The months of April, May, June, and July brought above average rainfall and below normal temperatures. In fact, we did not record a single temperature over 90 degrees in July at the golf course. The unseasonable temperatures during July led to the third coolest on record for Dayton. Fall was welcomed with very good weather with normal temps and below normal rainfall totals. Looking back at the weather records over the past few years it is very difficult to predict what the 2015 season will bring. Our best prediction lies in the hands of the groundhog on February 2. Please refer to the chart below for a comparison of weather highlights over the past 4 years. From the Turf Staff at Beavercreek Golf Club, we wish you a Happy New Year and hope your resolution involves playing more golf!



2011 2012 2013 2014
Record High's 26 46 16 8
Record Low's 7 3 24 28
         
# of Days ≥ 85 64 73 36 31
# of Days ≥ 90 29 42 11 4
# of Days ≥ 95 11 14 1 0
# of Days ≥ 100 0 4 0 0
         
High Temp of the Year 98 103 95 90
         
Avearge High Temp - May 71.4 79.5 74.4 73.9
Average High Temp - June 80.8 81.2 81.1 81.5
Average High Temp - July 90 91.4 82.1 79.4
Average High Temp - Aug 85.1 85.2 82.1 82.6
Average High Temp - Sept 72.5 75 78.2 76.4
         
Total Annual Rainfall 64.65" 33.93" 43.09" 41.54"
Dayton's Average Annual Rainfall 40.88" 40.88" 40.88" 40.88
Total # of Rainy Days 119 93 96 90
         
Total Annual Snowfall 18.75" 17.5" 34.55" 37"
Dayton's Average Annual Snowfall 25" 25" 25" 25"
         
January Rain/Snow Total .83"/13" 4.95"/5.5" 2.82"/6" 1.24"/17"
February Rain/Snow Total 4.3"/3.75" .9"/2" 1.11"/1.55" 1.38"/9.5"
March Rain/Snow Total 4.25"/1" 3.02"/0" 2.88"/11" 2.72"/3.5"
April Rain/Snow Total 11.24"/0" 2.57"/0" 4.31"/0" 6.17"/2"
May Rain Total 6.71" 1.76" 4.04" 5.97"
June Rain Total 3.39" 3.84" 4.27" 6.53"
July Rain Total 3.95" 3.18" 6.69" 5.99"
August Rain Total 4.49" 1.5" 2.26" 4.09"
September Rain Total 8.26" 4.06" 3.62" 1.8"
October Rain Total  3.71" 4.11" 6.01"/.5" 2.09"
November Rain/Snow Total 6.41"/1" .98"/0" 2.06"/1.5" 1.26"/5"
December Rain/Snow Total 7.11"/0" 3.06"/10" 3.02"/14" 2.3"/0"

Friday, December 12, 2014

Beavercreek Golf Club Recognized for Environmental Excellence

 
BEAVERCREEK, OH – Beavercreek Golf Club has achieved designation as a "Certified Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary" through the Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary Program for Golf Courses. Zachary Wike, Assistant Superintendent, led the effort to obtain sanctuary designation on the property and is being recognized for Environmental Stewardship by Audubon International. Beavercreek is the 17th golf course in Ohio and the 915th in the world to be designated as an Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary.

"Beavercreek Golf Club has shown a strong commitment to its environmental program. They are to be commended for their efforts to provide a sanctuary for wildlife on the golf course property," said Tara Pepperman, Director of Cooperative Sanctuary Programs at Audubon International.
"To reach certification, a course must demonstrate that they are maintaining a high degree of environmental quality in a number of areas," explained Pepperman. These categories include: Environmental Planning, Wildlife & Habitat Management, Outreach and Education, Chemical Use Reduction and Safety, Water Conservation, and Water Quality Management.

The Audubon Cooperative Sanctuary Program for Golf Courses, endorsed by the United States Golf Association, provides information and guidance to help golf courses preserve and enhance wildlife habitat and protect natural resources. Golf courses from the United States, Africa, Australia, Canada, Central America, Europe, New Zealand, and Southeast Asia have achieved certification in the program.
Beavercreek Golf Club, set on 180 acres, provides ample green space in an area rapidly being developed for residential and commercial use. The golf course maintenance staff uses Best Management Practices to ensure environmental stewardship, while providing excellent playing conditions. The golf course is home to many species of wildlife where they can find over 40 acres of naturalized areas, more than 7000 linear feet of streams, and 5.3 acres of ponds. For more information about the golf course maintenance practices at Beavercreek Golf Club, please visit: www.beavercreekturf.blogspot.com

Audubon International is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization based in Troy, NY. In addition to golf courses, Audubon International also provides programs for businesses, schools, communities, and new developments with the purpose of delivering high-quality environmental education and facilitating the sustainable management of natural resources. For more information, call Audubon International at (518) 767-9051or visit www.auduboninternational.org.

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